A meeting was held in Hakone, 26-28 June, for initializing the PI team activities of the GLI&AMSR project.
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Mr. T. Tanaka, the director of the Earth Observing Research Center, JAXA, gave the opening address to welcome the attendance. Dr. K. Ya. Kondratyev has pointed out the importance of establishing an efficient earth observing system. Dr. M. D. King has overviewed the current status of the EOS project including the selection of AMSR on the EOS-PM1 platform.
(1) ADEOS-II Science Status Report ( Toshiaki. Uesugi, EORC/JAXA )
T. Uesugi , ADEOS-II coordinator of the Earth Observing Research Center, JAXA, gave PIs the information common for the GLI&AMSR projects as follows:
- JAXA has offered the right to be PI to 37 and 23 scientists for GLI and AMSR PIs, respectively.
- JAXA wants to finish all the PI selection procedure until September, 1996 including budget contract.
- The research period will be two years beginning from October, 1996.
The schedule of the research activities is as follows:
- Starts of algorithm research (Oct. 96)
- Delivery Evaluation datasets for Selection of standard algorithm (Dec. 96)
- 2nd GLI/AMSR Workshop and presentation of PIs calculation results (June. 97)
- Selection of standard algorithm (Oct. 97)
- Starts of algorithm development with Tool kit (Oct. 97)
- Final decision of standard algorithm (Sep. 98)
- Algorithm development way is different between AMSR and GLI and this is shown in each session.
There will be extension of the research period after the first two year period for the PI which has provided AMSR standard and a couple of candidate algorithms and who has a notable contribution to GLI algorithm development. Another RA will be issued in the end of this year for combined algorithm, science and validation.
(2) ADEOS-II Data Policy Status Report (N. Tomii, JAXA)
N. Tomii ,Earth Observation Planning Department, JAXA, explained that ADEOS-II Data Policy is not determined yet but may be same as ADEOS Data Policy and followed to EOICWG. The data distribution policy of ADEOS-II sensor categorized in data usage purpose is also shown.
(3) ADEOS-II Project Status Report (Yasuyuki Ito, EOS/JAXA)
Y. Ito, AMSR Instrument Manager of Earth Observation Satellite Department, JAXA, reported ADEOS-II Project Status, ADEOS-II instruments, Main characteristic, in orbit configuration, project organization, operation system.
ADEOS-II Subsystem and core instruments EMs manufacturing is in progress, and some of PFM components manufacturing are started.
He answered that GLI-6km data is broadcasted, but AMSR data is not. he also mentioned possibility study of AMSR on EOS-PM1. Its provision has not formally determined yet , but study is now going.
(4) Ground Segment Status Report (S. Horiyama/T. Uesugi, JAXA)
S. Horiyama, the Earth Observation Center(EOC) engineer, JAXA, reported that ADEOS-II Data Acquisition and Processing System overview, system feature, data transmission, acquisition, processing, distribution plan, AMSR/GLI products definition, and development schedule. Most of GLI-1 km and AMSR global data are to be acquired by Data Relay Satellite(DRS) at EOC. GLI-250m regional data are acquired by real time reception. ODR will be used for more efficient regional data. Science terms are requested to clarify the specification for development of science software by June, 1997.
T. Uesugi in behalf of EOIS responsibility people of the Earth Observation Information System(EOIS) , explained that EOIS overview. EOIS is separated into 2 system. one is Data Distribution and Management Segment(DDMS) resides in EOC, and the other is Data Analysis Segment (DAS) resides in EORC. DDMS provides earth observation satellite standard products and on-line information related to the earth observation satellites. EOIS/DDMS for ADEOS is pre-operational, undergoing final validation of system performance. TRMM enhancement is undergoing and ADEOS-II enhancement is planned as follows: Interoprability with NASA/EOSDIS Release B Provide the GLI, AMSR Sub sampling data via internet ADEOS-II Observation Request.
DDMS concept study was started in this April, user requirements for EOIS/DDMS should be summarized until this October for level 1 and next April for level 2. He mentioned user requirements for DDMS may be welcome and discussed about in this meeting.
(5) Basic Policy on Cooperative Agreements (Kuniko. Uchida)
K. Uchida, Research Planning Division of EORC, explained that the Cooperative Agreement describing rights and responsibilities of JAXA and PIs will hopefully be made by September 1996. However, the budget for Japanese PIs has been frozen to spend until the successful launch and the initial operation of ADEOS. JAXA's designated agent will arrange necessary research resources or funding for overseas participating organizations and Japanese governmental participating research institutes within the agreed limit. JAXA will arrange necessary funding for participating universities in Japan directly the same as we have already done in ADEOS and TRMM research activities.
Akira Shibata, AMSR chief scientist of EORC, JAXA, welcomed the PIs to Hakone and initiated the meeting with selfintroduction of all the participants.
(1) AMSR Development Status and Calibration Plan Report (Y. Ito, K. Imaoka)
Yasuyuki Ito, AMSR Instrument Manager, Earth Observation Satellite Department, JAXA, presented the AMSR hardware overview, performances, and development status. AMSR is a total power microwave radiometer with a conically scanning function at an incidence angle of 55 degrees. Frequencies are 6.9, 10.7, 18.7,23.8, 36.5, and 89.0 (horizontal and vertical polarization), and 50.3 and 52.8 GHz (vertical polarization only). High spatial resolution will be achieved with 2m main reflector. The Engineering Model has been completed and some results of antenna pattern measurement were shown. He also mentioned the status of AMSR on EOS/PM-1, though its provision has not formally determined yet. The feasibility study is now going on, and the Phase-A budget was approved in JFY 1996.
Keiji Imaoka, EORC engineer, added briefly the post-launch calibration and validation items of AMSR. EORC will be in charge of the cal/val effort after launch.
(2) AMSR Science Status Report (15:40-18:00, 26 June) (A. Shibata)
A. Shibata explained that algorithms to be developed by scientists as standard and research ones. Standard ones will be running operationally at EOC. They should be accurate, and simple as possible. Standard ones, except for SST and soil moisture, will be selected by competition by using data set composed from SSM/I and truth data. Scientists selected as standard algorithm should support to JAXA when installing their algorithms, and also support to JAXA when modifying their algorithms after ADEOS-II launch. Research algorithms should be more accurate than standard ones, by using new techniques or scientific ideas, or by combining other data such as GLI and SeaWinds et al..
The present RA will be extended moreover after a period of two years for both standard and research algorithms. In the end of the second year evaluations of their algorithms will be carried out by JAXA.
For AMSR science, he reported five points as listed below.
- New parameters of SST and soil moisture will be obtained from 6 or 10 GHz data. Sea surface wind speed in typhoon could be obtained from 10 and 6 GHz.
- By virtue of high spatial resolution, an accuracy of retrieving precipitation, sea surface wind speed, sea ice distribution et al. will be improved.
- Combination of AMSR and GLI data will make new parameters. For example, skin versus bulk SST, SST with versus without cloud, snow particle size, thin sea ice, liquid water content in cloud.
- Combinations of AMSR and SeaWinds data will also give new information about sea surface roughness related with swells, short waves, white caps.
- Data assimilation by using AMSR data will be planned for operational weather forecast model of JMA.
Japanese research activities using SSM/I data were reviewed as follows; improvements of weather forecast (K. Aonashi); short time scale disturbances in Tropics seen from water vapor content (K. Aonashi); snow melting signal in the Antarctic (H. Enomoto); Soil moisture comparison between SSM/I and model (K. Koike); High SST in tropical ocean estimated from SSM/I TB and GMS cloud (A. Shibata)
(3) AMSR Team Management Plan (T. Uesugi)
T. Uesugi explained that The AMSR project is run by the following organization:
AMSR PI team (EORC)
- Chief scientist (A Shibata)
- Water vapor, liquid water (T. Hayasaka)
- Precipitation (K. Aonashi)
- Ocean (A. Shibata)
- Sea ice (F. Nishio)
- Snow, soil moisture (T. Koike)
AMSR managing function
- AMSR manager (T. Uesugi, EORC)
- AMSR Algorithm Integration Team (TBD)
- AMSR Software Integration Team (TBD)
- Satellite System Group (Y. Ito, EOS)
- Ground/Information System Group (Y. Ishido, EOC)
(4) AMSR Algorithm Development Status Report and Algorithm Implementation Plan (T. Uesugi)
T. Uesugi presented that algorithm selection and algorithm development plan, datasets candidates for algorithm comparison and tool kit concept and unfixed item of standard products definition Several algorithm for each products are selected after the first one year development and final one algorithm is select after the latter one year development. (A. Shibata mentioned that final one algorithm may be selected before lanch except SST and soil moisture.A couple of SST and soil moisture algorithm may be continued for developing till launch and final one algorithm will be selected by after launch validation.) Algorithms are classified by their degree from phase-1 (algorithm documents) through phase-4 (operational algorithm in EOC). Candidates of datasets for water vapor, rain, sea surface wind speed, sea ice category are proposed, but candidates of datasets for snow, cloud liquid water, SST, soil moisture are not proposed and requested to be discussed in this meeting.
Definition of Level-1B, Level-2Map, Fast delivery Products(FDP), Geophysical Products is also remained.
PIs will be required to submit algorithm documentation and the first one is requested in this October as algorithm outline. Tool Kit is software development tool simulating EOC processing system at PIs or EORC computer environment and phase 3 algorithm should be developed with this Tool Kit.
(5) AMR Airplane Observation Report (K.Imaoka)
Keiji Imaoka`s presentation included the Airborne Microwave Radiometer (called AMR) instrument description and the preliminary results from flight campaigns. AMR is flown on a Beech B200 aircraft, has six channels similar to AMSR except 50 GHz, with non-scanning antennas at an incidence angle of 55 degrees (0 or 11 degrees can also be selected). Two preliminary campaigns have been performed, one in October 1995 and one in February 1996, covering many scientific missions such as soil moisture, sea surface wind, sea surface temperature, sea ice, snow cloud, snow cover, and frozen soil.
Total 21 persons presented their algorithms, implement plans. The below is the matrix between the PIs and geophysical parameters. Vonder Haar, Mitnik, Gudmandsen and Takayama were absent and Kidder gave presentations on behalf of Vonder Haar. Parallely JAXA EORC had an interview of each PI for budget contract negotiation.
Group Leaders for five sub groups have been assigned by JAXA, and they were agreed by participants. It was also agreed that foreign counter persons are not necessary.
Roles of their leaders are;
Five sub groups are not rigidly fixed, and it is recommended that some groups could be merged in the future if appropriate. US scientists pointed out that cross talk issues are very serious. Also it was recommended that previous comparison results such as AIP, PIP or water vapor comparison would be used as reference. JAXA will distribute datasets for algorithm comparison from Dec. 1996, and PIs will send their calculation results to JAXA by Jun. 1997.
(1) Water vapor, liquid water
As for water vapor, two data sets of combined SSM/I and truth data were proposed for algorithm comparison. One is from operational radio sonde observations obtained globally through GTS. The other is from the research vessel, Keifu Maru, which cruises from the tropics to the subarctic in the Western Pacific. As for liquid water, concrete data sets were not shown, and some ideas of using Tb model or AVHRR data are proposed.
It was proposed that the algorithm intercomparison would focus on instantaneous precipitation cases, and that the validation would employ the satistical techniques used in AIP3. The intercomparison will use SSM/I data for up to 20 instantaneous cases, in which ground truth data are from Radar-AMEDAS, radar of Ishigaki Island, and radar during TOGA COARE IOP. If possible, the algorithm comparison for monthly-mean precipitation could be added.
It is recognized for SST that a final selection of algorithm before ADEOS-II launch would be difficult, since there are no reliable data for 6 and 10 GHz. Several candidates might be assigned. Data from AMR flights observations will be commonly used in algorithm development. Examples of AMR flights across the Kuroshio obtained in this February were shown. TRMM TMI 10 GHz data will be also useful. As for surface wind speed, combined data set of SSM/I and buoy data were proposed. JMA buoy 3, TOGA buoy 42, and NBDC buoy 28. A period from Aug. 1992 to Dec. 1995.
(4) Sea Ice
Combined data set of SSM/I and AVHRR data in the Okhotsk Sea and the Antarctic were proposed for algorithm comparison. If possible, the Arctic data set could be added. Standard algorithm might be made by negotiations by considering results from algorithm comparison.
(5) Snow, Soil Moisture
It was proposed that the following four kinds of data sets for algorithm comparison would be provided by PIs' contributions as well as JAXA's efforts.
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Last Update : May 27, 1997
Authorized by : EORC
Revised by : JAXA/EORC/GAIT