Global Rainfall Map in Near-Real-Time (GSMaP_NRT) by JAXA Global Rainfall Watch System (Ver. 3.0)
Earth Observation Research Center, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
Updated September 2014

1. Introduction

We offer hourly Global Rainfall Map in Near-Real-Time (GSMaP_NRT), available four hours after observation, using the JAXA Global Rainfall Watch System. The system is based on the combined MW-IR algorithm using GPM-Core GMI, TRMM TMI, GCOM-W1 AMSR2, DMSP series SSMIS, NOAA series AMSU, MetOp series AMSU, and Geostationary IR developed by the GSMaP (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation) project.

The newly developed algorithm for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission (GPM-GSMaP Ver.6) is used to retrieve rain rate, and product is the same to the GPM Global Rainfall Map product distributed from the JAXA G-Portal (https://www.gportal.jaxa.jp). GPM-GSMaP Ver.6 is the latest algorithm developed by the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) project, and it is dbased on the heritage of the study "Production of a high-precision, high-resolution global precipitation map using satellite data," sponsored by Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) during 2002-2007. Since 2007, GSMaP project activities are promoted by the JAXA Precipitation Measuring Mission (PMM) Science Team).

The main feature of the GSMaP algorithm is utilization of various attributes derived from TRMM PR that is the first spaceborne precipitation radar.

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2. Description of rainfall data

Variable
Rainfall rate (mm/hr)
Domain
Global (60N - 60S)
Grid resolution
0.1 degree latitude/longitude
Temporal resolution
1 hour

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3. Commentary on site contents

HTML:

About browse images

  1. You can view global rainfall maps (overlapped with IR images) from past to present. Click a figure to see an enlarged version.
  2. To see past rainfall maps, choose the desired dates and times and then press the "submit" button. If maps are not current, the system indicates "NO DATA."
  3. You can see the latest figure or 10 latest figures vertically by pressing the Latest 10hours switch. Please turn javascript on.
  4. You can see movies for the latest 24 hours by pressing 24th Movie. Choose dates and times to view past movies.
  5. You can view them with or without displaying the microwave radiometer overpasses by pressing the MWR Coverage switch.
  6. You can also look at them on Google Earth by pressing Google Earth (You must have Google Earth installed).

About cloud images

  1. Background cloud images use Globally-merged, full-resolution (~4km) IR Data, produced by NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC). Data uses infrared (IR) information observed by the geostationary satellites, including the MTSAT satellite by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the GOES satellites by U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Meteosat satellites by the European Meteorological Satellites Organization (EUMETSAT). Those data are provided through NASA/GSFC Precipitation Processing System (PPS).
  2. Black areas sometime shown in browse images indicate missing of cloud data on an irregular base by several reasons such as delay of data delivery or satellite operation status.
  3. Since rainfall estimates are calculated mainly based on microwave radiometer observation, rainfall data will not be missing even if cloud image is missing in that pixel.

FTP:

  • GSMaP_NRT data are freely available from password protected ftp server. Please click here to get data.
  • Data format description file is available from here (PDF).

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4. JAXA/EORC GSMaP NRT System

We operate the JAXA/EORC GSMaP NRT System based on the combined MW-IR algorithm developed by the JST/CREST GSMaP project and use it to provide hourly global rainfall maps.

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5. Algorithm inputs

1) Geostationary satellite data

Until 22Z 28 March 2012, pixel-resolution data of MTSAT, METSOSAT-7/-8, GOES-11/-12 provided by JWA was used. Satellite zenith angle correction method, which is developed and distributed by NOAA /CPC, has been applied in merging each IR data.

Since 23Z 28 March 2012, Globally-merged, full-resolution (~4km) IR Data, which is merged from the ~11 micron IR channels aboard the MTSAT, METSOSAT-7/-8, and GOES-11/-12, produced by NOAA/CPC, has been used.

The range of the latitude is 60N-60S. The temporal resolution is 1 hour in this product

2) Low Earth Orbit satellite data

Satellite Height (km) Instrument Category frequency (GHz) Note
GPM Core 407 GMI imager 10.7, 19.4, 21.3, 37, 85.5, 166, 183.31±3, 183.31±7 Introduced into GSMaP_NRT
since 3 Sep. 2014
TRMM 402 TMI imager 10,19,21,37,85
AQUA 705 AMSR-E imager 7,10,19,24,37,89 Not operational since
4 Oct. 2011
GCOM-W1 705 AMSR2 imager 7,10,19,24,37,89 Introduced into GSMaP_NRT
since 1 Jul. 2013
DMSP-F13 833 SSM/I imager 19,22,37,85 Not operational since
18 Nov. 2009
DMSP-F14 833 SSM/I imager 19,22,37,85 Not operational since
24 Aug. 2008
DMSP-F15 833 SSM/I imager 19,22,37,85 Only rain over the ocean has
been used since Aug. 2006
Not used since 3 Sep. 2014
DMSP-F16 833 SSMIS imager/
sounder
19.4, 22.2, 37, 91.7, 60-63,
50-59, 150, 183.31±1,
183.31±3, 183.31±7
Introduced into GSMaP_NRT
since 11 Jun. 2010
DMSP-F17 850 SSMIS imager/
sounder
19.4, 22.2, 37, 91.7, 60-63,
50-59, 150, 183.31±1,
183.31±3, 183.31±7
Introduced into GSMaP_NRT
since 11 Jun. 2010
DMSP-F18 850 SSMIS imager/
sounder
19.4, 22.2, 37, 91.7, 60-63,
50-59, 150, 183.31±1,
183.31±3, 183.31±7
Introduced into GSMaP_NRT
since 1 Jul. 2013
DMSP-F19 850 SSMIS imager/
sounder
19.4, 22.2, 37, 91.7, 60-63,
50-59, 150, 183.31±1,
183.31±3, 183.31±7
Introduced into GSMaP_NRT
since 25 Mar. 2015
NOAA-N18 870 AMSU-A/
MHS
sounder 23.8-89.1 (AMSU-A), 89,
157, 183.311±3, 183.311±5,
190.311 (MHS)
Introduced into GSMaP_NRT
since 3 Sep. 2014
NOAA-N19 870 AMSU-A/
MHS
sounder 23.8-89.1 (AMSU-A), 89,
157, 183.311±3, 183.311±5,
190.311 (MHS)
Introduced into GSMaP_NRT
since 1 Aug. 2011
MetOp-A 817 AMSU-A/
MHS
sounder 23.8-89.1 (AMSU-A), 89,
157, 183.311±3, 183.311±5,
190.311 (MHS)
Introduced into GSMaP_NRT
since 1 Aug. 2011
MetOp-B 817 AMSU-A/
MHS
sounder 23.8-89.1 (AMSU-A), 89,
157, 183.311±3, 183.311±5,
190.311 (MHS)
Introduced into GSMaP_NRT
since 3 Sep. 2014

3) Ancillary Data

  • JMA Global Forecast data, and Global Analysis (GANAL) data
  • JMA Merged satellite and in situ data Global Daily Sea Surface Temperatures (MGDSST)

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6. Some caveats for data users

  • Although JAXA/EORC has taken every care to manage the current site, JAXA assumes no responsibility regarding the safety of the contents of the Site or the reliability of information provided on the Site. JAXA is not responsible to you for any damage that may be caused by the use of the Site and/or the information on the Site.
  • Please contact in advance if you want to distribute images or data from this site to many people, such as in a pamphlet or internet. Also, please check JAXA Site Policy for details from here.
  • Anyone wishing to publish any results using the data from the JAXA Global Rainfall Watch System should clearly acknowledge the ownership of the data in the publication (for example, ' Global Rainfall Map in Near-Real-Time (GSMaP_NRT) by JAXA Global Rainfall Watch' was produced and distributed by the Earth Observation Research Center, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). If you have benefited from GSMaP rainfall products, please cite the major papers listed in Section 9.
  • We would appreciate receiving a preprint and/or reprint of publications in which you utilize our data. Relevant publications should be sent to :

TRMM Real-Time Office Earth Observation Research Center, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
2-1-1, Sengen, Tsukuba-city, Ibaraki 305-8505 Japan
Fax +81-29-868-2961
E-mail:

Please contact us at the if you have any questions.

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7. Links

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8. Acknowledgments

The GSMaP_NRT and JAXA Global Rainfall Watch system was developed based on heritage of the GSMaP Project led by Prof. K. Okamoto (Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka, Japan) under R&D of Hydrological Modeling and Water Resources System in the Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology program of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). We would like to thank JST and the members of the GSMaP Project.

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9. Papers describing the GSMaP project

  • K. Okamoto, T. Iguchi, N. Takahashi, K. Iwanami and T. Ushio, 2005: The global satellite mapping of precipitation (GSMaP) project, 25th IGARSS Proceedings, pp. 3414-3416.
  • T. Kubota, S. Shige, H. Hashizume, K. Aonashi, N. Takahashi, S. Seto, M. Hirose, Y. N. Takayabu, K. Nakagawa, K. Iwanami, T. Ushio, M. Kachi, and K. Okamoto, 2007: Global Precipitation Map using Satelliteborne Microwave Radiometers by the GSMaP Project : Production and Validation, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 45, No. 7, pp.2259-2275.
  • K. Aonashi, J. Awaka, M. Hirose, T. Kozu, T. Kubota, G. Liu, S. Shige, S., Kida, S. Seto, N.Takahashi, and Y. N. Takayabu, 2009: GSMaP passive, microwave precipitation retrieval algorithm: Algorithm description and validation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 87A, 119-136
  • T. Ushio, T. Kubota, S. Shige, K. Okamoto, K. Aonashi, T. Inoue, N., Takahashi, T. Iguchi, M.Kachi, R. Oki, T. Morimoto, and Z. Kawasaki, 2009: A Kalman filter approach to the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) from combined passive microwave and infrared radiometric data. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 87A, 137-151.
  • S. Shige, T. Yamamoto, T. Tsukiyama, S. Kida, H. Ashiwake, T. Kubota, S. Seto, K. Aonashi and K. Okamoto, 2009: The GSMaP precipitation retrieval algorithm for microwave sounders. Part I: Over-ocean algorithm. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, 47, 3084-3097.
  • M. Kachi, T. Kubota, T. Ushio, S. Shige, S. Kida, K. Aonashi, and K. Okamoto, 2011: Development and utilization of "JAXA Global Rainfall Watch" system. IEEJ Transactions on Fundamentals and Materials, 131, 729-737. (In Japanese)
  • T. Ushio, and M. Kachi, 2009: Kalman filtering application for the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP). Chapter for "Satellite Rainfall Applications for Surface Hydrology" (Editedy by Mekonnen Gebremichael and Faisal Hossain), Springer, ISBN978-9048129140, 105-123.
  • S. Seto, N. Takahashi, T. Iguchi, 2005: Rain/no-rain classification methods for microwave radiometer observations over land using statistical information for brightness temperatures under no-rain conditions. J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 8, 1243-1259.
  • Y. N.Takayabu, 2006: Rain-yield per flash calculated from TRMM PR and LIS data and its relationship to the contribution of tall convective rain, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L18705, doi:10.1029/2006GL027531.
  • T. Ushio, D. Katagami, K. Okamoto, and T. Inoue, 2007: On the use of split window data in deriving the cloud motion vector for filling the gap of passive microwave rainfall estimation, SOLA, Vol. 3, 001-004, doi:10.2151/sola, February 2007-001.
  • N. Takahashi, and J. Awaka, 2007: Introduction of a melting layer model to a rain retrieval algorithm for microwave radiometers. Proc. 25th IGARSS, 3404?3409.
  • S. Seto, T. Kubota, N. Takahashi, T. Iguchi, T. Oki, 2008: Advanced rain/no-rain classification methods for microwave radiometer observations over land, J. Appl. Meteo. Clim., 47, 11, 3016-3029.
  • T. Kozu, T. Iguchi, T. Kubota, N. Yoshida, S. Seto, J. Kwiatkowski, and Y. N. Takayabu, 2009: Feasibility of Raindrop Size Distribution Parameter Estimation with TRMM Precipitation Radar. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 87A, 53-66.
  • T. Kubota, S. Shige, K. Aonashi, K. Okamoto, 2009: Development of nonuniform beamfilling correction method in rainfall retrievals for passive microwave radiometers over ocean using TRMM observations. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 87A, 153-164.
  • S. Kida, S. Shige, T. Kubota, K. Aonashi, and K. Okamoto, 2009: Improvement of rain/no-rain classification methods for microwave radiometer observations over ocean using the 37-GHz emission signature. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 87A, 165-181.
  • S. Shige, T. Watanabe, H. Sasaki,T. Kubota, S. Kida, and K. Okamoto, 2008: Validation of western and eastern Pacific rainfall estimates from the TRMM PR using a radiative transfer model, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2007JD009002.
  • S. Seto, T. Kubota, T. Iguchi, N. Takahashi, T. Oki, 2009: An evaluation of over-land rain rate estimates by the GSMaP and GPROF algorithms;The role of lower-frequency channels. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 87A, 183-202.
  • T. Kubota, T. Ushio, S. Shige, S. Kida, M. Kachi, and K. Okamoto, 2009: Verification of high resolution satellite-based rainfall estimates around Japan using gauge-calibrated ground radar dataset. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 87A, 203-222.
  • S. Kida, T. Kubota, M. Kachi, S. Shige, and R. Oki, 2012: Development of precipitation retrieval algorithm over land for a satellite-borne microwave sounder. Proc. of IGARSS 2012, 342-345.
  • A. Taniguchi, S. Shige, M. K. Yamamoto, T. Mega, S. Kida, T. Kubota, M. Kachi, T. Ushio, and K. Aonashi, 2013: Improvement of high-resolution satellite rainfall product for Typhoon Morakot (2009) over Taiwan. J. Hydrometeor., 14, 1859-1871.
  • T. Kubota, S. Shige, M. Kachi, and K. Aonashi. 2011: Development of SSMIS rain retrieval algorithm in the GSMaP project. Proc 28th ISTS, 2011-n-46.
  • T. Ushio, T. Tashima, T. Kubota, and M. Kachi, 2013: Gauge Adjusted Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP_Gauge), Proc. 29th ISTS, 2013-n-48.
  • S. Shige, M.K. Yamamoto, and A. Taniguchi, 2014. Improvement of TMI rain retrieval over the Indian Subcontinent. Geophys. Monogr. Ser. (in print).
  • M.K. Yamamoto, and S. Shige, 2014: Implementation of an orographic/nonorographic rainfall classification scheme in the GSMaP algorithm for microwave radiometers. Atmos. Res. (in print)

Additional related references of the GSMaP (November 2002 to September 2007) are listed on the here.

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